Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 陶瓷原料涨价的原因分析.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
In contrast to last year when the vast majority of economists expected the ECB to launch full-scale quantitative easing, just under half of the 33 respondents thought the ECB would do nothing this year. The rest said the ECB would expand QE or cut interest rates, although some of those who expected more easing stressed that the central bank was unlikely to radically reshape its existing policy response.
However, one lawyer, who prefers to remain anonymous, says Teach Firsters’ prior experience and autonomy in a classroom can mean they feel frustrated starting at the bottom of an organisation’s ladder again.
Hanging on the coat tails of Ronaldo and Messi are NBA star LeBron James (pound 53 million) and tennis player Roger Federer (pound 46 million).
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
We will make our skies blue again.
New year’s events can be anticlimactic. Not so in China where stock markets began 2016 with enough excitement to make traders choke on their bubbles: Shanghai stocks dropped 7 per cent on Monday, Shenzhen more than 8 per cent. It could have been worse. A new mechanism that suspends trading after a drop of 7 per cent halted play early — in this instance, by an hour and a half.
They are calculated using a methodology that focuses on a school's research performance and reputation, not its specific undergraduate or graduate programs. This is a separate methodology than those used for other US News rankings such as Best Colleges and Best Graduate Schools.
“We weren’t looking to throw the bums out, as they might say about an election. We were just really impressed with a flood of new powertrains, ” says Drew Winter, WardsAuto World Editor-in-Chief. “What was great yesterday might be less impressive tomorrow because engine technology is changing so rapidly.”
Bangkok is projected to host 21.47 million "international overnight visitors" this year, according to the 2016 report by financial services corporation MasterCard.
A New Year greeting to cheer you from your daughters.
Rouslan Krechetnikov和Hans Mayer对液体的溅出现象进行了研究。他们考察的课题是：人们在端着咖啡杯走动时咖啡的溅出情况，给你个提示吧，在你走到第七步至第十步之间，咖啡最容易溅出。
Judge for yourself.
Anyone who doesn't feel they can tap into their inner-Picasso to create amazing drawings needn't worry. The study demonstrated that it wasn't the quality of the doodles and drawings that helped participants recall given words. Drawing a simple outline of a banana offered just as much benefit to the memory as a perfectly drawn piece of fruit. Additionally, the study found that participants only needed to spend a few seconds on their drawing to receive a significant boost to their ability to recall the word. The researchers plan to take their research a step further in the future by introducing more complex words and ideas and measuring the memory success of participants asked to recall those intricate thoughts.
The study is available online.