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持续扩张 绿色家居市场规模今年将达694.4亿

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 京华时报:最受欢迎建材品牌 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

2014家居建材行业发展四大机遇 行业仍有升值空间

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

英国国家电网(National Grid)的教育和技能主管托尼?莫洛尼(Tony Moloney)表示,参与该项目是国家电网旨在鼓励学校学生学习STEM科目(科学,技术、工程和数学)以及熟悉本领域工作的总体计划的一部分。
不过,这种局面正发生变化。2013年基准布伦特原油价格的一次大波动发生在8月份,当时国际社会干预叙利亚的可能性似乎越来越大。虽然在美国牵头进行空袭的威胁下,在伦敦洲际交易所(IntercontinentalExchange)交易的布伦特原油价格上涨了5%,但并没有逼近2013年高点。
8. Smile every time EXCEPT when my team is losing.
If Lloyd Grossman were to go through the keyholes of Oscar winners’ houses, he would find their golden statues in various spots: from prime real estate such as the mantelpiece to the depths of cupboards collecting dust.
n. 制作人,经理人,主办者
5.匈牙利德布勒森
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源于:relax(v 放松;休息)
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1.手指存储器
Gitanjali said she wanted to further refine the device so it could eventually go on the market.
说到这一点,你要注意的是,不要影响其他的人。没有人想每隔十分钟就听到你提问一次。如果你实在是不懂的话,可以在课后约上老师再讨论。

Footnotes

  • 两项建材行业标准启动会在杭州召开
  • Honda hopes NSX will burnish its reputational halo for technical expertise. The automaker also wants NSX to help boost Acura’s brand image as a maker of premium cars and trucks. Last year, Honda’s U.S. sales rose 1% against a market that increased by 5.9% – resulting a loss of market share, most importantly, lost ground against its two main rivals, Toyota and Nissan.

As for China, lack or stopped development represents the biggest risk for this country. So it is essential that we maintain steady medium-high growth of our economy and that in itself is China’s contribution to global stability.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC).” Previous reports have pegged the screen size at just under the 5 inches of Samsung’s Galaxy 4.
谷歌2017全球搜索排名前十
"A total of 297 projects will be carried out in Tongzhou, such as building new subway lines and expressways, and improving ecologies," Lu Yan, director of the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform, said at a news conference on Wednesday.
Spotify, the music streaming service, plans to list existing private shares directly on the New York Stock Exchange as soon as the fourth quarter rather than doing a formal IPO, while other large, well-known tech companies for now were seen as more likely prospects for 2018, bankers said.
Sandy has caused large-scale damage, with more possibly to come.

意大利TASSANI 将在华建生产基地

References

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