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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

中国人民银行(PBoC)干预外汇市场由来已久,目的是防止过度波动。不过,交易员们表示,自今年8月以来,这种干预已从国内即期市场(覆盖日常交易)扩大至包括香港的离岸人民币市场,以及在岸和离岸期货市场。

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While French and Spanish institutions dominate the top of the pre-experience ranking, UK business schools are the real powerhouses in this category accounting for 17 schools out of 50, ahead of the US (eight) and France (six). Two UK institutions, LBS and Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge, top the post-experience ranking.
尽管看起来有着大量的目标核对工作,但在5月7日,中国驻贝尔格莱德的大使馆却被从美国空军B-2幽灵轰炸机上发射的五枚卫星制导联合直接攻击弹药击中。三名中国记者——新华社记者邵云环,光明日报记者许杏虎和他的妻子朱颖在袭击中身亡。另外20名中国公民受伤5人伤势严重。
It was visible, for example, on many of Frida Giannini’s Gucci runways, including the tablecloth shades and A-line shapes of leathers for autumn-winter 2014; the pastel tunics and ruffled hostess dresses of spring-summer 2013; the bright Beatle trouser suits and caftans of spring-summer 2009.

We will promote the liberalization and facilitation of international trade and investment.
['breik.θru:]
Referencing the American chat show host, he quipped: 'I've always wanted to meet Jay Leno,' before laughing to himself. Clearly unimpressed, Dallas Buyers Club star Jared hit back: 'Sorry, what was your name again?'But audiences seemed to pick up on the atmosphere between the two, with one viewer joking: 'Think Jared Leto got a bit paranoid about Grinder looking at him.'

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

三大绝招打造优质口碑 给涂企带来最直接的营销效果

Summly and Yahoo refused to comment on the deal’s terms.
贝恩公司(Bain & Company)也正处于变革之中,去年11月该公司宣布曼尼马塞达(Manny Maceda)将于2018年3月成为其全球领导人,从鲍勃博切克(Bob Bechek)手中接管这家总部位于波士顿的咨询机构;马塞达将是该公司首位亚洲血统的掌门人。专家们表示,马塞达可能推动该公司开拓新的专长领域,并摆脱业务多而不精的名声。
The Canadian city of Vancouver remains the most expensive location in North America, ranked 21st in the index.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

4. Cook
"How many patients do Chinese doctors see a day? It can be more than 50," he told China Daily. "How can we have the time and energy to do research or publish papers?"
While Cousins' volatile personality and high-usage tendencies present challenges, there are numerous justifications for rolling the dice:

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Despite car and truck sales that motored past 16 million for the first time since 2007, recalls dominated the news for most of the year. General Motors GM 1.42% held center stage, dealing with cascading revelations about faulty ignition switches and recalling millions of vehicles. While GM opted for something approaching full disclosure of its missteps , publishing an report into company-wide fumbles, Japanese airbag maker Tanaka chose to stonewall. It left any remedies up to its beleaguered customers, notably Honda and Toyota. They are the ones who deal with the fallout of exploding safety devices that fatally fired shrapnel throughout the passenger compartment.
  • 京津冀一体化带火北三县:像买菜一样火速买房
  • adj. 现代风格的,流行的,潇洒的
  • 广东棚户区改造今年任务已开工过半
  • 丹东新房领涨 东北楼市回暖?
  • The best time to visit is between May and January in 2017. Be a part of an amazing experience, visiting architecturally and culturally rich heritage sites in Kathmandu Valley, the country's political and cultural hub, and Royal Chitwan National Park in the south, the habitat of rare animals like the one-horned rhino and Bengal tiger.
    11月,财新-Markit制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从10月的51%降至50.8%,接近区分扩张和收缩的50%大关。此前,路透社(Reuters)对经济学家进行调查得出的预测中值曾预计,制造业PMI将降至50.9%。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 价格战逼退节能灯业者 LED照明Q3需求量走高, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

门头沟492套公租房启动配租

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

宁波女性买房猛增:“比起找男友 房子更重要”

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 全食CEO约翰麦基的《自觉资本主义》(Conscious Capitalism)一书让公司高管们不得不思考这样一个观点,那就是处于最佳运转状态的企业能为所有利益相关方创造价值,而不仅仅是投资者。麦基认为,主要利益相关方包括顾客、员工、供应商、社会以及环境。他以好市多、西南航空(Southwest Airlines ,《财富》500强)和谷歌(Google,《财富》500强)为例,说明思维超越利润能够打造更强大而、更高效的公司。
    普京对俄罗斯经济做出积极评价。他说,经济已渡过危机,至少渡过了危机的高峰。
  • A combination of tax increases and spending cuts in 2013 shaved about 1.5 percentage points off annual economic growth, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Many forecasters expect the fiscal drag in 2014 to be one-third that amount, or less. 'You'll have more political certainty this year,' said Gregory Daco, a U.S. economist at Oxford Economics.
    10. The 2012 Ig Nobel Prize in Medicine
    temporary
    n. 面具,面罩,伪装
    Last year, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine conducted random quality inspections on 1,013 batches of such products, including consumer goods such as toys, paper diapers, clothing and kitchenware, with 415 found to be substandard, accounting for 40.9 percent of all sampled products, according to Han Yunping, spokesman for the administration.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 新政下楼市降温 房产中介骚扰电话量暴增
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 十三部门发文:严格规范售房租房电话营销等多种骚扰行为

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The top-earning woman in the music business has been cashing in on a massive world tour, a constant stream of hit singles and a string of endorsements with a slew of major companies, while occasionally throwing thinly veiled barbs at her chief rival.
For all of these films, Ms. Swinton used the same tooth-designing specialist, Chris Lyons of the company Fangs F/X in London. His work has led him to designing all manner of teeth, including gold fangs fitted for a Doberman used in a Kanye West music video.
Metals cases made up a record 46 per cent of the 233 anti-dumping actions brought worldwide in 2015, with the steel industry accounting for almost all of the metals complaints.
都不是。1772年,一场空前的危机击中了阿姆斯特丹:一家受人尊敬的荷兰投资银团对不列颠东印度公司(British East India Company)股票的投资变成了一场灾难。
家用电器行业的平均价值上升了74%,是10大行业里上升幅度最大的。电子商务和零售业位居其后,价值上涨了69%。医疗卫生保健行业上升32%。金融服务行业上升了18%,酒类行业上升了17%。房地产增长了15%,饮食行业上升了11%。
采光。在工作中,光线是很重要的,不要用上大学时候的那个小台灯了,用个更别致更有创意的灯吧。
China is preparing to sign more bilateral or multilateral agreements with other countries, and will enhance information exchanges and joint investigation especially with Western countries such as the US, Canada and Australia on some major or individual cases, according to the CCDI.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • The image of a smooth-talking, chain-smoking and sexist James Bond may be a thing of the past as the latest 007 novel gives him a politically-correct makeover.
  • 珈伟股份拟1.2亿收购中山品上照明有限公司100%股权
  • 加拿大城市温哥华依然是北美地区最贵城市,在生活成本指数榜单上名列第21位。
    不过,从乐观角度看,阻碍复苏的几个拦路虎──身负重债的消费者、半死不活的楼市和心有余悸的银行──已经不再对招聘造成负面影响。除非经济受到意外的打击,否则这可能意味着2013年将又是一个缓慢但稳定的增长之年。[qh]
  • 德豪雷士布局智能家居O2O 线上线下齐发力
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Ariel Foxman In Style
    It’s no surprise that credit is “pro-cyclical.” When asset prices are booming, optimistic lenders tend to make more loans and often feed the euphoria. When markets sink, lenders rein in risk and sometimes make the downturn worse.
  • 教育行业基本上还未受到在线服务交付的影响——但可能会在2018年经历戏剧性的变化。
    昨日发布的新数据是对2015年全球贸易图景的第一张快照。但在这些数据发布之际,有越来越多的人担心2016年对全球经济而言将比此前预期的更为危机四伏。
  • 人命关天,安全至上。
    美国谷歌搜索2017排名前十
  • Bernard Baumohl 作为Economic Outlook Group的首席经济学家,表示他甚至更乐观的认为接下来的两年将会成为至少近十年以来形势最好的两年,他还称“有很多证据充分的表明了经济正在恢复的势头”。
    她自言自语道,别再来这么一回了,太吓人了。
    Refugees from Syria, which has been torn apart by a five-year-old civil war that has left over 200,000 people dead and millions more displaced, account for half of all those counted, followed by refugees from two other war-torn countries, Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • 美因何而存在?为了回答这个问题,鸟类学家理查德?O?普鲁姆正试图令达尔文的一种观点重新流行:同一个物种中,动物对其同类的吸引力,不仅仅与健康和良好的基因有关。动物,尤其是普鲁姆博士所研究的鸟类,会做出主观的决定。他希望进化生物学家不要再“为欲望辩解”了。
    荷兰合作银行是面向全球农户和农业企业的领先融资机构。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 装修费用成谜 人工费是材料费的一倍? shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“5+8” 打造全球城市“中国样本”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

中国建材产品成为澳反倾销重点打击目标

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

供应量4年来最少 楼市“金三银四”恐泡汤

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

楼市发生裂变 最牛操盘团队如何炼成

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • “我们从斯雷布雷尼察大屠杀事件了解了荷兰和荷兰人是什么样的,”埃尔多安说起现代荷兰历史上最可耻的一幕,“我们从他们屠杀那里的8000名波斯尼亚人就知道,他们品德败坏到何等地步。”
  • “…did a song and dance routine in hopes of getting the job.”
  • 机构:中国高净值个人境外资产五年后增量13万亿

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 时间长度:21个月
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 你可以在AskMen.com网站上看到完整榜单。以下是最性感女人前十名:
    The price of gold has risen 15 per cent since the beginning of 2017 to trade at $1,334.78 a troy ounce.
    即使他们打的比赛也许并不完美,但是,金州勇士队完美的赛季开局阶段仍然在继续。
  • The drop was even more pronounced measured in US dollars, with exports crashing 11.2 per cent year-on-year last month to $177.48bn. That was from a 1.4 per cent drop in December, and versus expectations for a 1.8 per cent slide. It was the biggest drop since a 15 per cent fall in March last year.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 一位著名神经学家的遗作引发的争议
  • 租房市场异动,源于市场失衡
  • 根据荷兰经济政策研究局(Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)发布的《世界贸易监测》(World Trade Monitor)报告,以美元计算,去年跨越国际边境的商品总价值下降了13.8%,是自2009年以来的首次萎缩。这一暴跌很大程度上源于中国和其他新兴经济体的放缓。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 盼盼院士工作站及环境建材检测中心在营成立
  • Household substance abuse
  • 汇聚全球智慧 华夏幸福推动区域产业升级
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

五一各地楼市成交火爆 一线城市签约量大涨逾四成

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京共有产权房养老试水 143套被认购
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 赵海山:天津自贸区将突出服务京津冀协同和实体经济
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The promotion of urbanization in central and western China has also attracted many members of the labor force from coastal cities in East China to inland regions, where the cost of living is much lower, Peng explained.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

But the economic base for these capabilities is steadily declining.
With an increase of 7 percent over 2013,total spending on medicines will amount to $1.06trillion in 2014, says the report"The Global Use of Medicines: Outlook through2018" from the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics, releasedThursday.
单词refrigerator 联想记忆:
Other European cities have seen increases in costs, pushing them up the rankings. London rose five points, bringing it into the top 10.
Inside larger technology companies, female employees will be hoping for signs of change in pay and promotions — but will also be on guard, as a men’s rights backlash brews in some corners of Silicon Valley.
但是她的成功也来之不易。精美的舞台装和参赛的全程费用已经让她母亲花费了5000英镑的费用。
competition
斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)是今年排行榜上的大赢家,该学校的排名攀升16个位次,排在第28位,不仅排名晋升速度为年度最快,而且扭转了去年排名下滑11位的局面。
v. 降低,婉谢
Others who made the top ten include Amazon's Jeff Bezos at fifth on the list, Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook at sixth, Oracle's Larry Ellison at seventh, Michael Bloomberg at eighth, and tied for ninth are David and Charles Koch.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

一线楼市去年下半年渐趋活跃 预计今年上涨明显

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 中国商务部的最新数据不包含个人购买的房地产。有不少个人利用中国资本管制体系的漏洞来获取外汇。但外汇监管机构最近采取措施堵住了此类漏洞,尤其是收紧了对个人购汇的管控——按现行规定,中国公民每年可用人民币购买等值5万美元外汇。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 都不是。1772年,一场空前的危机击中了阿姆斯特丹:一家受人尊敬的荷兰投资银团对不列颠东印度公司(British East India Company)股票的投资变成了一场灾难。
  • 平安集团:房地产投资属于纯粹的财务投资 不会做野蛮人
  • Gov. Ricardo Rossello, 37, proposed several measures aimed at alleviating the crisis shortly after he was sworn in at midnight. Among them is a proposal to hold a referendum that would ask voters whether they prefer statehood or independence. Many have argued that Puerto Rico’s political status has contributed to its decade-long crisis that has prompted more than 200,000 people to flee to the U.S. mainland in recent years.
  • 京交会“多会合一”构建开放新格局
  • Harry Styles, 'Harry Styles'

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 陶瓷行业现代仿古风暴来了 仿古砖盛行
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • “疲软的国内需求和大宗商品价格下跌继续拖累中国的进口增长,”澳新银行(ANZ bank)经济学家刘利刚表示。“展望未来,中国的出口行业仍将面临一些重大不利因素。”
  • 改编自上世纪70年代真实贿赂事件的影片《美国骗局》当晚表现更加抢眼,埃米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和珍妮弗?劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)凭此片分获最佳女主角和最佳女配角奖。《为奴十二年》虽在提名数量上与《美国骗局》打平,参与了七个奖项的角逐,但当晚只摘得最佳剧情片一个奖项。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

木塑复合材料:绿色建筑的领头羊

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